The first reports of inhabitance dating from 1,300 BC The people they were colonists Achaeans. Around 1000 BC seems to have been intense human presence on the island, as revealed by archaeological finds. For the next period until the 8th BC century there is hardly any findings.
After this period, the human presence is constant. In historical times, the island was divided into four independent cities - states: wrestling, Helmets, and their Pronnon Sami. During the Peloponnesian War (431 - 404 BC), and four cities - island states were allies of ancient Athens. Later, in 323 BC Kefalonia allied with King Philip of Macedonia in an alliance that lasted throughout the reign of Philip and his son Alexander the Great.
In 198 BC The island was conquered by the Romans. During the Byzantine period, Kefalonia belonged to the province of Achaia. The period of Byzantine Kefalonia thrives.
In the years that followed the island is occupied by the Normans and other invaders. For a long time the island was held by the Orsini family. Here's conquest by the Turks in 1485 but which lasts until 1504 because in the meantime appear powerful Venetians. The Venetians give privileges to residents.
In 1537 appears the pirate Barbarossa attacked on the island leaving behind the disasters. In 1636 made major earthquakes on the island causing many casualties, while in 1640 civil war broke up in 1654 between nobles and peasants.
Despite the adverse conditions and frequent disasters, trade and population are continuously rising. From 1715 onwards the once powerful Venice, begins to decay and lose territories in the Greek area. In 1757 Argostoli is the capital of the island and the Venetian presence begins to decline continuously.
In 1797 and for a brief period of two years set in the island French, after their victory over the Venetians. The residents quickly begin to dislike the French because of the high taxes imposed. In 1799 founded the "State of the United Ionian" and government involved only noblemen.
In 1806, Kefalonia is once again the French, who retain until 1809. In 1809 England occupied Cephalonia and assumes command. In 1815 the Ionian Islands were under British protection and took the name "United States of the Ionian Islands." The British govern authoritarian revolts and not missing from the island.
In 1830 he began to cultivate the idea of unification with Greece by young Kefalonians who had returned from Europe. The year 1848 was attitude of residents against the British. Drill the bridge in Argostoli was conflict with the English army. From the year 1863 dealing with "Ionian Issue" major European powers and after intense diplomatic activity finally signed the Treaty of Union of the Ionian Islands with Greece.
From 1863 Kefalonia is part of the Greek territory. In 1867 the island was hit by powerful earthquakes and disasters are great. During the 2nd World War, Italian forces made a landing on the island and possession. Later the island disembark German forces, which come into conflict with their former allies the Italians.
The climax was the massacre by the Germans many Italian soldiers who had surrendered peacefully after prisoner executed. The period of the German occupation of the island, although it lasted only a year, was among the worst in the turbulent history of Kefalonia. The occupying forces left the island in September 1944.
The next tough test of the island was in August 1953, where a large number of earthquakes (113 vibrations), the island was destroyed. The destruction was such that many towns and villages had to be rebuilt almost from scratch.
In the years that followed, the island began to be aware of tourism development. Large units created by modern standards, and tourism began to contribute to the island's economy. This growth continues, and today the island is considered one of the best holiday destinations in Greece.